Chapter 5 Children and Sports Notes Class 12 Physical Education

Chapter 5 Children and Women in Sports Notes Class 12 Physical Education

CBSE Notes Class 12

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Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 5 Children and Women in Sports Notes

Motor Development in Children
Motor development refers to the development of a child’s bone, muscles and ability to move around and manipulate his/her environment. In simple words, motor development means the development of movement and various motor abilities from birth till death. In other words, motor development is the progressive change in movement throughout the lifecycle. It can be divided into two types:

  1. Gross Motor Development: It involves the development of large muscles in the child’s body such as sitting, walking, running, climbing etc.
  2. Fine Motor Development: It involves the small muscles of the body especially in the small movement of the fingers and hands. For example, holding the javelin, discus, pole, catching a cricket ball, smashing volleyball and gymnastic exercises with or without apparatus etc.

Stages of Motor Development during Childhood
Motor development in children can be studied effectively under the following three stages of childhood:

  1. Early Childhood (3 to 6 years)
  2. Middle Childhood (7 to 10 years)
  3. Late Childhood (11 to 12 years)

Factors Affecting Motor Development

  1. Biological or Genetic Factors
  2. Nutrition or balanced diet
  3. Opportunities
  4. Postural Deformities
  5. Environment Factors
  6. Physical Activities
  7. Sensory Impairment.
  8. Obesity

Exercise Guidelines at different Stages of Growth and Development
Exercise or physical activity is essential for proper growth and development of individuals.
There are following guidelines related to exercise or physical activity in various stages of growth and development.

  1. Infancy (1 to 2 years)
  2. Early Childhood (3 to 6 years)
  3. Middle and late childhood (7 to 12 years)
  4. Adolescence (13 to 19 years)
  5. Adulthood (above 19 year)

Common Postural Deformities: Knock Knee, Flat Foot, Round Shoulder Lordosis, Kyphosis, Bow Legs and Scoliosis and their Corrective Measures.

Common Postural Deformities:
Incorrect posture can lead to many postural defects. Some of them have been discussed below.

  1. Spinal Curvature (Kyphosis, Lordosis, Scoliosis)
  2. Round Shoulders
  3. Knock Knees
  4. Flat Foot
  5. Bow Legs
  1. Spinal Curvature: This deformity is caused by carrying excessive weight beyond capacity. Weak muscle causes the formation of spinal curvature. The vertebral column sometimes develops exaggerated or deformed curves, resulting in conditions such as Kyphosis, Lordosis and Scoliosis.

(A). Kyphosis: Also called hunchback, is a common condition of a curvature of the upper spine. Thoracic spine (upper back) has a normal outward curvature that is medically referred to as Kyphosis or the ‘kyphotic’ curve by which the spine is bent forward.

Causes of Kyphosis: Kyphosis, due to postural deformity, is caused by bad posture for a long period. It usually occurs during adolescence. Other factors that can lead to Kyphosis are malnutrition, illness like rickets, muscular weakness, insufficient exercise and lack of pure breathing air.

Precautions: The best precaution for prevention of Kyphosis is learning and maintaining correct posture. Correct posture is the best precaution as well as remedy for Kyphosis.

Remedies: The following exercises should be performed for remedification of Kyphosis:

  1. Sit in a chair. Your buttocks should touch the back of chair. By looking upward, hold your hands each other behind the back in such a way that your shoulders may remain in stretch backward. Remain in this position for some time.
  2. Always keeps a pillow under your back while sleeping.
  3. Bend your head backward in standing position.
  4. Perform dhanurasana, the yogic asana regularly.
  5. Lie down in front lying position. Keep your hands near the shoulders. Now straighten up your arms slowly, raise the chest. Head should be backwards. Maintain this position for some time.
  6. Hold your arms out at shoulder level and bend elbows. Snap elbows back return to starting position. Repeat this exercise at least 8 times for the best results.

(B). Lordosis: Lordosis is the inward curvature of spine. In fact, it is an increased forward curve in the Lumber region. It creates problem in standing and walking. The body seems to be stiff. The individual feels shame and inferiority. Lordosis can be corrected in early stage.

Causes of Lordosis: Generally imbalanced diet, improper environment, improper development of muscles, obesity and diseases affecting vertebrae and spinal muscles are such causes which result in Lordosis. In addition to these causes, not performing exercises and taking excessive food are also major causes of Lordosis.


  1. Balanced diet should be taken.
  2. Obesity should be kept away specially in early age.
  3. The body should be kept straight while carrying weight.
  4. Excessive intake of food should be avoided.

Remedies: The following exercises should be performed.

  1. From standing position, bend forward from hip level. Repeat this exercise for 10 times.
  2. Lie down on your back, raise your head and legs simultaneously for 10 times.
  3. Perform sit-ups regularly.
  4. Halasana should be performed regularly.
  5. Lie down on your back, and then raise your legs at 450 angles. Remain in this position for some times.
  6. Toe-touching should be performed for at least 10 times.
  7. Sit down and extend your legs forward. Try to touch your forehead to your knees. Repeat this exercise for 10 times.

(C). Scoliosis: Postural adaptation of the spine in lateral direction is called Scoliosis. Scoliosis means bending, twisting or rotation. In fact, these are sideways curves and may be called scoliotic curves. These are defined in terms of their convexities. They are identified, as either convexity right to right convexity. A simple or single curve to the left or convexity left is common called a ‘C’ curve. Scoliotic curve may be found in ‘S’ shape.

Causes of Scoliosis: Scoliosis may be due to many reasons but the main reasons are diseases in the joints of bones, under developed legs, infantile paralysis, rickets, etc. It may also be due to carrying heavy loads on one shoulder, unhealthy conditions like inadequate lighting arrangement, unsuitable desks, partial deafness and wrong standing posture. It may be caused by congenital or acquired abnormalities of vertebrae, muscles or nerves.


  1. Balanced diet should be taken.
  2. The study should be avoided in sideways bending position.
  3. Avoid walking for long time carrying weight in one hand.

Remedies: Scoliosis can be remedified by performing following exercises:

  1. Bending exercise should be performed in opposite side of the ‘C’ shaped curve.
  2. Hold the horizontal bar with your hands.
  3. Hold the horizontal bar with your hands and swing your body to the left and right side.
  4. To swim by using breast stroke technique.

2. Round Shoulder: In this postural deformity, the shoulders become round and sometimes seem to be bent forward.


  1. Round shoulder may be due to heredity.
  2. Sitting, standing and walking in bent position may also result in round shoulder.
  3. Wearing very tight clothes.
  4. Sitting on improper furniture.
  5. Lack of proper exercise especially of shoulders may also lead to round shoulders.
  6. To become habitual to press the chest, especially at the time of bench press.


  1. Don’t sit, walk or stand in bent position.
  2. Avoid tight-fitting clothes.
  3. Avoid sitting on improper furniture.

Remedies: The following exercises should be performed to remedify this deformity.

  1. Keep your tips of fingers on your shoulder and encircle your elbows in clockwise and anticlockwise direction.
  2. Hold the horizontal bar for some times.
  3. Perform Chakrasana and Dhanurasana regularly.

3. Knock Knees: The knock knees are one of the major postural deformities. In this deformity, both the knees knock or touch each other in normal standing position. The gap between ankles goes on increasing. The individual faces difficulty in walking and running. He cannot walk or run in a proper manner. Owing to this deformity, people cannot be good players and even they are not selected in defense service.

Causes: Generally, the lack of balanced diet especially vitamin ‘D’, calcium and phosphorus is the main cause of knock knees. It may also be due to rickets. Chronic illness, obesity, flat foot and carrying heavy weight in early age may be other possible causes of knock knees.


  1. Balanced diet should be taken.
  2. Babies should not be forced to walk at very early age.

Remedies: To remedify this deformity, the following points should be taken into consideration.

  1. Perform Padmasana and gomukhasana regularly for some time.
  2. Cod liver oil may be beneficial in reducing this deformity up to some extent.
  3. Keep a pillow between the knees and stand erect for some time.
  4. Use of walking calipers may also be beneficial.
  5. In severe cases, consult the doctor.
  1. Bow Legs: It is opposite to knock knees position. In this deformity, knees are widely apart. There remain a wide gap between knees when a bow legged person keeps his feet together. This deformity, can be observed easily, when an individual walks or runs.
    Causes: The main causes of bow legs are the deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in bones. Long bones of legs become soft, hence they are bent outward. The chances of bow legs also increase when children become overweight. This deformity may be due to the deficiency of vitamin ‘D’. Improper way of walking and forcing the babies to walk at very early age may also lead to bow legs.


  1. Don’t let the children be overweight.
  2. Don’t force the babies to walk at very early age.
  3. Balanced diet should be given to children. There should not be any deficiency of calcium,
    phosphorus and vitamin ‘D’ in the diet.

Remedies: The following measures should be taken for remedification of bow legs:

  1. Vitamin ‘D’ should be taken in required amount.
  2. Balanced diet should be taken.
  3. Bow legs can be corrected by walking on the inner edge of feet.
  4. Walking by bending the toes inward.
  1. Flat Foot: Our feet act as the base of support for the body in standing, walking, running and jumping. Flat foot is commonly found among newly born babies but it becomes postural deformity if it still persists during lateral childhood. The children with flat foot deformity cannot be efficient sportspersons. Such children feel pain in feet. They face problems in standing and walking. It is easy to observe whether a person has flat foot deformity or not. Dip your feet in water and walk on the floor. If there is not a proper arch of footprints on the floor then you have the deformity of flat foot. In fact, there should be proper arch of the feet.

Causes of Flat Foot: The main cause of flat foot is weak muscles. Weak muscles of the foot cannot bear the body weight. Hence, feet become flat or without arches. Along with this rapid increase in body weight, improper shoes, carrying heavy weight for a longer period are also the causes of flat foot.


  1. The shoes should be proper shape and size.
  2. Don’t walk bare feet for a long duration.
  3. Obesity should be avoided.
  4. Don’t force the babies to walk at very early stage.
  5. Carrying heavy weight in early childhood should be avoided.
  6. High heeled shoes should be avoided.

Remedies: The following exercises should be performed to remedify this deformity.

  1. Walk on inner and outer side of feet.
  2. Perform ups and downs on the heels.
  3. Jumping on toes for some time.
  4. Perform Vajrasana, the yogic asana.
  5. Walk on toes.
  6. Walk on heels.
  7. Skip on rope.

Corrective Measures for Postural Deformities:
The role of physical activities in functional deformities is very effective especially during elementary school years. Indeed physical activities or exercises in various forms can serve to counteract the effect of gravitational force. The correction of postural deformities should be a part of school education. The programmes for the correction of postural deformities in a school should be included more than just exercises for correcting a specific deformity.
Students should also be encouraged to engage in exercises for increasing general strength, endurance, balance and flexibility. Methods of relaxation should also be performed. Along with the exercises, posture consciousness should also be developed among such students who have postural deformities.
There are a number of physical activities or exercises which can be used as a corrective measure for postural deformities. Various corrective exercises related to specific postural deformities are stated below.

Corrective Measures for Kyphosis:

  1. Lie on back, i.e., in spine position with knees drawn up and feet flat on the ground. Both hands should be at sides. Then move your arms sideways in horizontal position. Palms should be upward. Raise your arms upward over the head, palms still up. Hold this position for some times. After that bring your arms back in horizontal position. Repeat the exercise at least 10 times.
  2. Lie down in prone position, i.e., on chest with hands on your hips. After that raise your hands and trunk several inches from the ground. Your chin should be in during this exercise. Hold this position for some time and then come back in previous position. Repeat this exercise at least 10 times.
  3. Sit in normal position, with a stick held in horizontal position over head, hands well spread. After that lower the stick and then raise it behind head and shoulders. While performing this exercise, keep your head and trunk straight. Repeat this exercise at least 10-12 times.

Corrective Measures for Lordosis:

  1. Lie down in prone position, with hands under abdomen. Then keep hips and shoulders down, press hands up abdomen and raise lower back.
  2. Bend knees forward while allowing hips to bend back behind, keeping back straight and knees pointed in same direction as feet. Descend until thighs are just parallel to floor. Extend knees and hips until legs are straight. Come back in starting position and then repeat the same.
  3. Sit on a chair with feet wide apart. Bend and position your shoulders between knees. Then reach to the floor under back of chair. Hold this position for some times.
  4. Sit down with knees extended, feet together and hands at sides. After that bend forward, touching the fingers to toes. Hold this position for some time. Then come back and repeat.

Corrective Measures for Scoliosis:
Scoliosis exercises are designed to correct the rotatory curvature of the spine. These exercises help in a limited ways to decrease curve angles. In fact, exercises do not have very significant role in the correction of Scoliosis. The affected ones are advised to participate in physical education programmes, organized sports and normal recreational activities. They may wear Scoliosis braces. Some exercises, which are described below may be beneficial to some extent;

  1. Lie down in prone position, i.e., on the chest. Right arms should be upward and left arm at side. After that move right arm towards the left over head, press down with left hand and then slide the left hip up.
  2. Stand erect with feet few inches apart. After that raise the left heel and left hip. Extend right arm in an arch overhead to the left. Press left hand against the ribs on the left side.

Corrective Measures for Knock Knees:
Generally, the deformity of knock knees cannot be corrected through exercises during the lateral childhood and adulthood. But, this deformity can be corrected up to some extent through exercises particularly when it is detected. The favorable result of exercises can be gained during the phase of early childhood. The following exercises should be performed.

  1. Horse-riding is one of the best exercises for correction of knock knees.
  2. Keep a pillow between the knees and stand straight for some time. Both the feet should touch each other.
  3. Use of walking calipers may be beneficial.
  4. Perform padamasana and gomukhasana regularly.

Corrective Measures for Bow Leg:
In case of bow legs, the role of exercises is approximately same as that of knock knees. The deformity of bow legs can be corrected up to some extent during the early phase of childhood.
During the lateral childhood and adulthood, the exercises don’t have a significant role. The following exercises may be beneficial for correction of bow legs.

  1. Stand erect with feet together. Wrap a soft piece of cloth on both legs at knee level. Tighten it with the help of a partner. Try to squat as far as possible. Hold that position of squat for some time. Come up and repeat it for 5-6 times.
  2. Walk for some distance on the inner edge of the feet.
  3. Walk by bending the toes inward.

Corrective Measures for Round Shoulder:

  1. Keep your tips of fingers on your shoulders and encircle your elbows in clockwise and anticlockwise direction for some time.
  2. Hold the horizontal bar for some time regularly.
  3. Perform chakrasana and dhanurasana for some time.

Corrective Measures for Flat Foot:

  1. Jumping on toes for some time.
  2. Perform rope skipping.
  3. Perform up and down the heels.
  4. Walk on toes.
  5. Sit down properly. Try to grip small wads of paper with your toes. These pieces of paper should be picked up by forcefully gripping with toes.

Sports Participation of women in India
Women participation in sports has a long history. In the ancient Olympic women were not allowed to watch sports competitions. Even in the first modern Olympic Games which were held in 1896 in Athens, there was no participation of women. Women started to participate in the modern Olympic Games from 1900 onwards. They participated only in two sports events. In this Olympic only twenty-two women participated. With the passage of time, the number of women participants in Olympic Games persistently increased and exactly after 100 years i.e., in 2000 Sydney Olympics, the number of women participants increased up to 4069. Over the past several decades the participation of women in sports field has increased tremendously.
The first Indian women to participate in the Olympics held in 1952 were four athletes. Karnam Malleshwari became the first Indian woman to secure a bronze medal in weightlifting in Sydney Olympics Games in 2000. In 2012 London Olympic Games, Saina Nehwal and M.C. Mary Kom put colorful feathers in the cap of India by securing one bronze medal each. In fact, there is a long list of female sportspersons who won various positions in the World Cups, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games and SAF games etc. Among these, Anju B George, Sania Mirza, Krishna Poonia, Seema Antil, Garima Choudhary, Jwala Gutta, Geeta Phogat, Heena Sidhu, Ankita Das, N.S. Chanu, Deepika Kumari are prominent sportspersons.
It is usually observed that women are not provided equal opportunities in comparison to their male counterparts. In fact, men are still considered the better. There is discrimination between men and women in the field of sports. Indeed, our social environment not only makes it easier for men to participate in sports but also makes it harder for women to do so. About participation of women in sports, Hart mentioned in his book a comment from an Australian racing driver for a woman lady driver of Holland, “Why don’t they stay in the kitchen where they belong.” Even MaryKom’s father objected to her taking up boxing because he felt that it would spoil her face and ruin her marriage prospects. The women wrestlers from Haryana had to contend with verbal attacks from local villagers. Discrimination against women’s participation in sports can be seen even in the field of media. Our women’s Kabaddi team won the World Cup. The concerned matches were not given due place on electronic and print media. How many people know about
Mithali Raj and other cricket players? It is shocking to know all such incidents of discrimination.
Though time is changing very fast and situations are improving but there is still a lot to be achieved. No doubt the number of participation of women in sports is having an increasing trend year by year but it is lesser in comparison to men.

Reason for Less Participation of Women in Sports

  1. Lack of Legislation
  2. Lack of Interest of Spectators and no Coverage of Women’s Sports
  3. Lack of Female Sportspersons as Role Models
  4. Lack of Fitness and Wellness Movement
  5. Less Number of Women Coaches
  6. Attitude of Society towards Women’s Sports Participation
  7. Lack of Personal Safety
  8. Sports and Games are Considered Masculine
Chapter 5 Children and Sports Notes Class 12 Physical Education