Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition Notes Class 12 Physical Education

Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition Notes Class 12 Physical Education

CBSE Notes Class 12

Please study notes for Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition Notes Class 12 Physical Education. These revision notes and questions answers have been prepared as per the latest syllabus and NCERT Book for Class 12 Physical Education published by NCERT, CBSE, KVS during the current academic year. We have provided Class 12 Physical Education Notes for all chapters. All important notes for health and physical education class 12 have been prepared by expert faculty.

Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition Notes

Balanced diet
“A diet which consists of all the essential food constituents’ viz. proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and water in correct proportion is called balanced diet.”

Functions of balanced diet:

  1. It provides energy for the various activities of the body.
  2. It helps the body to grow and replace worn out tissues.
  3. It has the chemicals, which help to control the body functions and protect the body from diseases.

‘Nutrition’ is defined as the science of food and its relationship to health. In other words, it can be said that Nutrition is the science of foods which deals with the dynamic process in which the food consumed is digested, nutrients are absorbed, distributed to the tissues for utilization and wastes are disposed off the body.

Macro Nutrients: Macro nutrients constitute the majority of individuals’ diet. They are taken in large amount. They supply energy and are needed for growth, maintenance and to perform activities.

Micro Nutrients: They are required in very small amounts. These are extremely significant for normal functioning of the body. The main function of these nutrients is to enable various chemical reactions to occur in the body.

Nutritive Components of Diet: Nutritive components of diet are those components which contribute or provide energy or calories.

Non-Nutritive Components of Diet: They do not contribute or provide energy or calories. Roughage or fiber, water, colors, flavors and pesticide residues etc. are among tens of thousands of non-nutritive components of diet or food. As a matter of fact, there are a lot of non-nutritive components of diet which can be identified easily. However, there are also so many non-nutritive components of diet which are just beginning to be found. There may be thousands of Phyto-chemicals which can both help us or harm us. Some of them are considered to check the cancer initiators or promoters in the body.

a. Carbohydrates are needed to provide energy during exercise.
b. Carbohydrates are stored mostly in the muscles and liver.
c. Complex carbohydrates are found in foods such as pasta, bagels, whole grain breads, and rice.
d. They provide energy, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. These foods are low in fat. Simple sugars, such as soft drinks, jams and jellies, and candy provide a lot of calories, but they do not provide vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.

a. Protein is important for muscle growth and to repair body tissues.
b. Protein can also be used by the body for energy, but only after carbohydrate stores have been used up.
c. Only strength training and exercise will change muscle. Athletes, even body builders, need only a little bit of extra protein to support muscle growth. 

3. Fat:-
a. It provides the highest concentration of energy of all the nutrients. 1 gram of fat equals nine calories. 1 pound of stored fat provides approximately 3,600 calories of energy.
b. Saturated fats are found primarily in animal sources like meat, egg yolks, yogurt, cheese, butter, milk. This type of fat is often solid at room temperature.
c. Unsaturated fats include monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, which are typically found in plant food sources and are usually liquid at room temperature.

4. Vitamin:-
a. A well planned and nutritionally adequate diet should meet an athlete‘s vitamin and mineral needs. Supplements will only be of any benefit if your diet is inadequate or you have a diagnosed deficiency, such as an iron or calcium deficiency.
b. Use of vitamin and mineral supplements is potentially dangerous and they should not be taken without the advice of a qualified health professional.

5. Minerals: –
a. Mineral are very essential in our diet. Four percent of our body weight is made up minerals.
b. These are required for healthy teeth, bones and muscles. It is also used by body for various activities such as transmission of nerve, impulses formation of hormones and maintenance of heart beat etc.

A. Macro Minerals:

a. Calcium:-
Calcium is among the top macro-minerals in terms of growth and development of our bones and teeth. It helps in blood clotting. Its deficiency may cause rickets.
The sources are cheese, milk, orange, juice, eggs, green leafy vegetables.

b. Potassium:-
Potassium is one of the most required minerals in diet. It is helpful in keeping the nervous system and muscular system fit and active all the time.
It helps in maintaining the amount of water in blood and tissues.
Its main sources are banana, tomatoes, green leafy vegetables, beans etc.

c. Sodium:-
It helps in muscular activities. It also helps in transmission of nerve impulses.
The sources are table salts, pickles and butter etc.

d. Magnesium:-
It repairs and maintains body cells.
It is found in meat, brown rice, beans and whole grains etc.

e. Phosphorus:-
Phosphorus helps in the formation of bone and teeth. It keeps the muscles and nerve activities normal.
The sources are egg, fish, liver, milk, and unpolished rice etc.

B. Micro Minerals:-

a. Iodine:-
It produces the hormones for the thyroid gland. It is also significant for proper growth and development.
Lack of iodine can cause goitre (swollen thyroid gland) and mental retardation.
The sources are fish and sea food.

b. Iron:-
It is essential in the production of haemoglobin. Its deficiency causes anemia.
The sources are meat, egg, dry fruits, spinach, and banana and greet leaf vegetables.

c. Chromium:-
It is essential in the production of haemoglobin. Its deficiency may cause diabetes.
The sources are soya beans, black gram, carrot, tomato, groundnuts.

Non-Nutritive Components of Diet:

1. Fiber or Roughage: It is undigested part of the food. It cannot be digested by the human intestinal tract. It consists of water and improves intestinal functions by adding bulk to food. It helps the individual to satisfy the appetite. It helps to correct the disorders of large intestine.

Roughage or fiber can be divided into two categories

a. Soluble: It can dissolve in water. It reduces blood- sugar fluctuation and lower cholesterols.
b. Insoluble: It cannot be dissolved in water. It is a good stool softener.
Usually 30 grams of fibers are recommended for adults per day. Both type of roughage or fibers are equally significant for human beings. Fiber is helpful in decreasing the risk of heart disease and preventing certain types of cancer.
Source: Wheat, fresh food, root, vegetable, oats, connective tissues of meat & fish are very good sources of roughage.

2. Water: Water is also an essential component of diet. Even blood comprises 90% of water. With the help of water through blood, the nutrients are carried to various cells of the body. It is also significant in the excretion of waste products. It also regulates the body temperature. Our body loses approximately 2% of our body weight as water per day. We recoup this loss of water by drinking water and by intake of food substances. It also functions as a lubricant, keeps the skin moist and protects the body from shock. Generally about 20% of water intake comes from food and remaining intake comes from drinking water. It is excreted from the body in various forms such as urine, faces, sweating and water vapors in the exhaled breath

3. Color Compounds: The food or diet is prepared more appetizing and attractive to see by the wide reflection of colors made possible through pigments. Natural pigments are found in fruits and vegetables. The colors from animal products and grains are less bright. There are various colors of fruits and vegetables such as red, orange, yellow, blue and cream.

4. Flavor Compounds: The flavors are derived from both nutritive and non-nutritive components of food. Sometimes it becomes very difficult to know the source of a specific flavor. An acidic food provides sour taste while alkaline one provides a bitter.

5. Plant Compounds: In addition to color compounds and flavor compounds, there are some plants which contain other non-nutritive substances. When these substances are ingested they may have beneficial or harmful effects. There are many compounds that inhibit cancer. There are also numbers of harmful substances in plants which have harmful effects if ingested in excess. Caffeine is such example. If it is taken in excess quantity it may increase heart rate, secretion of stomach acid and urination.

Eating for Weight Control – A Healthy Weight, the Pitfalls of Dieting, Food Intolerance and Food Myths

Meaning of Healthy Weight: Usually a healthy weight is that weight at which an individual leads a
healthy life without any risk of diseases.

Methods to Control Healthy Body Weight:

  1. Lay Stress on Health not on Weight
  2. Active Lifestyle
  3. Avoid Fatty Foods
  4. Avoid Overeating
  5. Don’t Skip Meals
  6. Balancing the Intake of Calories and Expenditure of Calories
  7. Regular Exercise or Physical Activity
  8. Cut your Calories
  9. Yogic Exercises
  10. Avoid Junk and Fast Food
  11. Don’t eat Frequently
  12. Avoid Alcohol, Smoking and Drugs
  13. Set the Appropriate Goal

The Pitfalls of Dieting
Nowadays everybody wants to look slim and trim. The individuals who are obese want to reduce weight. They use various methods of weight-loss. Most of them adhere to dieting to lose weight. In the beginning dieting produces good results or success. But after initial success it adds more weight later on. Even research studies indicate that 90% of dieters gain all of their weight back and sometime more than that. The best method of burning calories is to eat less and exercise more.
1. Extreme Reduction of Calories
2. Restrictions on Some Nutrients
3. Skipping Meals
4. Intake of Calories through Drinking
5. Underestimating the Calories
6. Intake of Labeled Food
7. Not Performing Exercise

Food Intolerance
The individual element of certain foods that cannot be properly processed and absorbed by our digestive system is called Food Intolerance. Some persons can tolerate a reasonable amount of the food but if they eat too much or too often they get symptoms of food intolerance because their body cannot tolerate unlimited amounts.
Causes of Food Intolerance
Food intolerances are caused by part or complete absence of activity of the enzymes responsible for breaking down or absorbing the food elements. These deficiencies are usually innate. Sometimes food intolerance can be diet related or can be due to illness.
Food intolerance can cause nausea, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, gas, cramps, headache or nervousness etc.
Management of Food Intolerance
Individuals can try major changes in diet to exclude food causing clear cut reaction. Sometimes it can be managed adequately in such a way without the need for professional assistance. If you are not able to know the food which cause problems you should seek expert medical help. Guidance can also be provided by your general practitioner to assist in diagnoses and management. For managing food intolerance fructose, lactose and histamine intolerance therapy can be applied.

Food Myths

  1. Potatoes make you fat
  2. Fat-free Products Help in Losing Weight
  3. Eggs increase cholesterol levels
  4. Drinking while eating makes you fat
  5. Don’t take milk immediately after eating fish
  6. Starve yourself if you want to lose weight
  7. Exercise makes you to eat more
Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition Notes Class 12 Physical Education